The EU faces some major energy policy choices, and a need to move away from fossil fuels, with nuclear energy and renewables often being presented as solutions, but also as polar opposites, in effect defining different pathways forward. Taking a wide view, this chapter explores this polarity, asking if these two options are indeed mutually exclusive. It concludes that, although some hybrid mixes may be possible, in many ways they are technically incompatible, and also reflect differing views on how society should develop. Those views will shape any specific prescriptions for energy technology research, development and deployment, although technological development and practices may influence what is deemed to be possible and desirable. Given that context, some research issues are outlined.