Concerns over issues such as climate change and sea level rise have become a major driver for international, national and local policy responses. From an initial focus on sustainable development from the late 1980s to attempts to restrict carbon emissions and limit global temperature rise in the 2016 Paris Agreement on climate change, these have in common the need to address the detrimental impacts of economic development. There is a longstanding argument that these problems are best addressed at the local and regional scale. This chapter initially explores the context for, and interpretations of such sustainable regions. It examines the rise of green economy approaches at the regional scale and the geography of the green economy, drawing on socio-technical transitions theory to investigate the concept of transition regions. The chapter concludes by briefly outlining critiques of the dominant green economy approaches and the need to develop further research into alternative approaches.