David D. Woods
This chapter reviews several ‘essentials’ that enable systems to perform resiliently. These essentials are concepts that have emerged from studies in multiple settings of what makes the difference between resilient performance and brittle collapse as surprises occur and disturbances cascade, regardless of the particular setting or scale. The chapter updates several of the essentials that emerged from the initial inquiries into resilience engineering and then covers additional essentials – initiative, managing the expression of initiative, and reciprocity. These are covered because they raise scientific challenges at the same time as they provide practical guidance to working organizations plagued by complexity, surprise and brittleness. The intention is to stimulate the process of discovery of the fundamentals that lead to resilient performance in complex systems.
David Murakami Wood
We are approaching an age of both planetary urbanism and planetary computing, and surveillance is crucial to this new condition. This chapter argues that planetary urbanism is marked by a constant modulation between biopolitical (caring and/or inclusive) and necropolitical (exclusionary and/or destructive) forms of control and that surveillance operates not only to mark all kinds of people and places for life or death, but also to give the impression of normality, completeness, effectiveness and necessity to this mode of ordering, even while it continually fails and remains incomplete in practice. These forms of control are increasingly infrastructural and pervasive, built into every aspect of life. The chapter considers the example of the ‘Smart City’ and proposes an agenda for research into planetary urban surveillance. Keywords: globalization, cities, surveillance, control
David De Wachter, Karel Neels, Jonas Wood and Jorik Vergauwen
Maternal employment rates vary considerably among countries and this variation hides important educational differentials both in labour market attachment and selection into full-time and part-time employment. This chapter investigates the educational gradient of maternal employment patterns in 11 European countries. It further considers the association with formal and informal childcare. The authors use micro-data from the first round of the Generations and Gender Survey, supplemented with macro-data from EU-SILC. The analysis makes use of multilevel multinomial logit models. The results show that more highly educated women less often leave the labour force after childbirth, predominantly remaining employed full-time. Low-educated women more often leave the labour force after childbirth and more frequently work part-time. The main exceptions are Germany, Austria and the Netherlands, where mothers more often work part-time, particularly among highly educated groups. Full-time employment is highest among mothers living in countries with strong and weak public support for families with children. However, in countries with weak support, period fertility is quite low, suggesting high levels of work–family conflict. Childcare is positively associated with female employment and the association is more articulated for formal than for informal childcare. In sum, childbirth is strongly associated with female employment, but the magnitude and sign of the association differs for full-time and part-time work, interacts with education and varies between countries. This pattern is likely to show increasing diversity given that the recent economic downturn has reduced public spending on family policies and raised economic insecurities, particularly among vulnerable socio-economic groups.
Geoffrey Wood, Alexandros Psychogios, Leslie T. Szamosi and David G. Collings
This chapter develops understanding of how context influences human resource management (HRM). Exploring relevant institutional factors, the complementarities of regulatory features of an organisation’s environment are discussed. The authors highlight some of the most influential institutional approaches to understanding variations in HRM policy and practice, and draw out the implications of recent theoretical developments. The authors define the institutional context, particularly highlighting how this affects employee rights.