To make ‘diversity trouble’ is to critique the notion of diversity itself, to examine how it is that we, as scholars and practitioners, come to use this term. This critique helps us to think differently about practice in order to transform it. The chapter takes a feminist approach, integrating the ‘tool box’ of Michele Foucault with Judith Butler’s idea of making ‘gender trouble’, extended to the concept of ‘diversity trouble’. It addresses readers who are not familiar with discourse analysis as well as those who are, creating links to the study of diversity, equality and inclusion. The empirical research that forms the central example is a study of the work of diversity practitioners in relation to gender and race/ethnicity. The chapter explores issues in carrying out feminist Foucauldian discourse analysis by describing the methodological framework of this study, the specific methods used, and the theoretical and political issues implied at each stage.
Chelsea R. Willness, David A. Jones, Nicole Strah and Deborah E. Rupp
To date, responsible management and corporate social responsibility (CSR) have been differentiated by their respective emphases on the responsible practices of ‘regular’ managers versus corporations (i.e. individual-level versus organizational- and macro-level phenomena). However, recent years have seen exponential growth in individual-level CSR research, offering insights that can inform responsible management scholarship and practice. In this chapter, we summarize the development and distinctions between these fields, and identify new synergies. We then review theory-driven empirical findings from micro-CSR research about how, when and why employees respond to CSR practices, and use a C-S-R Considerations framework and theory about three CSR motives to derive evidenced-based principles that inform recommendations for practice. Specifically, we describe how managers can design, manage, and communicate about externally-directed CSR programs in ways that create additional value for employees—beyond the value created for the intended beneficiaries—to ultimately enable employees’ CSR engagement and advocacy, and elicit job attitudes and behaviors that benefit the company. We conclude with suggestions for future research on responsible management.