The concept of voice applies to a wide range of behaviors and situations, from informally offering opinions to influence organizational decisions, to formally discussing performance appraisal and development evaluations. In this chapter, the authors draw on theory and research from organizational behavior to examine voice from the perspective of the individual. They examine the individual’s willingness to express voice in both informal contexts (for example, within work groups, in interactions between employees) and formal contexts (for example, expressing voice in performance appraisal and performance management settings). Finally, the authors develop a model of willingness to express voice in formal and informal context and use this model to make suggestions regarding future voice research.
Deirdre O’Shea and Kevin R. Murphy
Michelle Hammond, Deirdre O’Shea and Jill Pearson
This chapter explores the diverse perspectives on global careers and their implications for international human resource development. The chapter starts by discussing what is meant by global careers and how careers have changed within the global economy and the implications of globalisation and traditional versus contemporary career concepts such as boundaryless and protean careers are examined. The chapter examines how organisations and careerists might manage the challenges and opportunities around global work experiences. Finally, the chapter discusses the opportunities for further research on global careers within the field of IHRD, especially in the areas of systematic categorisation that captures the diversity of global work experiences and examinations of the role of context and time in global careers.