The phenomenon of social entrepreneurship has proliferated in recent times. Concurrently, scholarly interest in and work examining social entrepreneurship has also blossomed. Yet there remains much about social entrepreneurship that we still do not know, whilst authors continue to highlight limitations in the state of theory development within the field of social entrepreneurship research. This chapter contributes towards advancing social entrepreneurship scholarship, and addressing these limitations, by exploring the insights, application and value of corporate social responsibility (CSR) theory for social entrepreneurship research. To do this, two key CSR theories: stakeholder theory and Carroll’s CSR pyramid, are analysed. We consider how both theories need to be adapted for a social enterprise context, before presenting a revised stakeholder theory of the social enterprise, and introducing the social enterprise responsibility pyramid. Although discussions in this chapter are principally conceptual, illustrative supporting examples are drawn from case study research with small and medium sized social enterprises in sub-Saharan Africa.
David Littlewood and Diane Holt
Diane Holt and Bev Meldrum
Across the world enterprise-based activities are seen as important vehicles for addressing a range of social, environmental and economic challenges. Many of these enterprises are considered to be hybrid social enterprises where their business activities support the delivery of their central social and environmental ‘mission’. Countries located in the Global South and emerging economies are seeing an explosion in these types of organisations, often working within the most vulnerable and poorest of communities to address many intractable development challenges. This chapter focuses on the development of a research agenda for such enterprises in these contexts. It begins by introducing some of the specifics of these contexts that potentially differ from developed and Global North contexts. It then introduces some of the overarching macro-level considerations that need to shape this research agenda before presenting some indicative research questions future researchers might like to consider.
David Littlewood and Diane Holt
The Khayelitsha Cookie Company (KCC) is a hybrid organisation in South Africa that provides affirming employment for women from disadvantaged township communities, who are paid a fair wage and have equity in the venture. Cookswell Jikos is a hybrid organisation in Kenya that produces and sells energy-efficient cook stoves to achieve its environmental mission of household-level sustainable seed-to-ash cooking in Africa. In Zambia, the hybrid organisation the Mumwa Crafts Association connects low-income craft producers from remote rural areas with domestic and international markets, providing them with a much-needed stable source of income. These are just three examples of hybrid organisations in sub-Saharan Africa, the area of the African continent that lies south of the Sahara Desert. Hybrid organisations, which exist at the interface of the public, private and third sectors, and which span boundaries between them, can now be found across sub-Saharan Africa. In recent times, we have seen a proliferation of hybrid organising, and a growth in the number of hybrid organisations globally (Haigh et al., 2015). It is increasingly suggested that such organisations have an important role to play in tackling ‘wicked’ global sustainable development challenges. Accompanying these developments there has been a surge in academic interest in hybrid organisations and organising (see, e.g., Billis, 2010; Jay, 2013; Doherty et al., 2014; Haigh et al., 2015; Powell et al., 2018). Nevertheless, there remains much about hybrid organisations that we do not know, particularly about hybrids in developing economies. More specifically there remains a relative paucity of work on hybrid organisations and organising in sub-Saharan Africa (Holt and Littlewood, 2015). This reflects wider limited business and management scholarship on sub-Saharan Africa (see Zoogah and Nkomo, 2013; Walsh, 2015). This chapter contributes towards addressing these gaps. Accordingly, the chapter has three main objectives: