Females’ involvement in starting and developing their own businesses provides job opportunities and ensures that women have an active role in the development of the economy. Therefore, female entrepreneurship and small business activities have become important topics in recent years. This study of Tanzanian female entrepreneurs investigates the factors which may influence women’s decision to start their own businesses. A literature review has been conducted to identify the general economic and environmental factors influencing female entrepreneurship. This is followed by an evaluation of government policies and strategies influencing start-up decisions. Finally, the author identifies some of the key barriers to start-up decisions among female entrepreneurs in Tanzania. The study provides a comprehensive summary of the literature with regard to the entrepreneurial experience of women, along with policy measures and strategies required to encourage female entrepreneurs within Tanzania and other countries of sub-Saharan Africa. This study provides policy makers, governmental and non-governmental organizations/institutions with additional evidence on female entrepreneurs within sub-Saharan Africa. This is useful in developing suitable strategies to help female entrepreneurs’ start-ups. The findings of this study can enhance the role of policy makers at every level of government, and assist legislative, regulatory and business support initiatives among female entrepreneurs.