Behavioral genetics approaches to the study of individual differences have been widely applied in various disciplines in social sciences to investigate the “nature versus/and nurture” issue through disentangling influences from genetic factors (i.e., influences from nature) and environmental factors (i.e., influences from nurture). However, leadership research has only recently embraced such approaches. This is unfortunate considering the long-standing debate on whether leaders are born or made, and the more recent emphasis on person–environment interplay in leadership research. In this chapter, the authors first discuss the importance of the behavioral genetics approach to organizational research. They then introduce two types of behavioral genetics research that have been adopted so far: classic twin studies and molecular genetic research capitalizing on specific DNA information. Specifically, they explain how univariate biometric analyses, and bivariate biometric analyses based on twin studies can be applied to study important issues in leadership research. With respect to molecular genetic research, they discuss the candidate gene approach and genome-wide association studies, and how they can be useful in advancing leadership research. They also provide brief research examples based on previous research in which such approaches can be employed in addressing critical questions in leadership.
Wen-Dong Li, Remus Ilies and Wei Wang
Often China’s global economic impact is approached with apprehension, as a question of ‘us’ (Europe and the United States, or China) and ‘them’ (China, or the United States and its allies), or as the ‘end of the beginning of the Chinese century’. In this chapter, I shift to an aspect that has been less debated, namely the governance of US–China economic relations in historical and contemporary terms. As the largest global trader, export-oriented manufacturer and foreign exchange reserves holder, China should be encouraged to do more for its Asian neighbors, the international economy and public goods. This is not going to thrust the United States’ nose out of joint in the global system. The United States would do no worse than share power and responsibility not only with China but also other countries around the world. In the economic sphere, China and the United States stand face to face like ambidextrous jugglers, articulating their differences while keeping business going. It is these very dynamic paradoxes that provide the kind of purpose and meaning to both countries’ continued search for order in their uneasy relationship. The United States and China, therefore, should and can see each other in a more relaxed way.