Chapter 6 considers air cargo security; a branch of the aviation industry that confronts unique challenges as the industry seeks to achieve a high level of protection while maintaining good business practices. Air cargo is a vast and growing sector that transports a wide range of products, including some that are classified as ‘dangerous goods’, in a variety of different models, each of which presents its own security challenges. In each, numerous actors are involved ranging from shippers to freight forwarders to the transportation companies. Security has always been a challenge to the industry because of criminal activities but in recent decades the terrorist threat has led to the development of new security processes and regulations, which, given the nature of the supply chains, require common global practices and objectives. Achieving a high level of security in this environment requires the resolution of numerous complex operational issues.