Two general scenarios dominate narratives about the future: environmental dystopia due to global catastrophe – the pessimistic scenario (here labeled “1984”); and sustainable development utopia due to successful solutions avoiding global catastrophe – the optimistic scenario (here labeled “Brave New World”). Considerable scientific skepticism is being expressed concerning whether the climate change goals of the 2015 Paris Agreement can be achieved – without considerably more drastic approaches being undertaken. What drastic approaches can, and should, be remain ill-explored. This chapter discusses the content of the pessimistic and optimistic scenarios in terms of five key dimensions: businesses, consumers, institutions – subdivided into governmental policies, domestic and international, and other (nongovernmental) social institutions – and technologies. The Paris Agreement is a global intergovernmental arrangement under which each participating country agrees to work toward certain climate change control targets. Participating countries agree to implement national policies accordingly. Technology solutions may be desirable and being explored by governments and entrepreneurs, but technology solutions are uncertain. It is also unclear whether – and if so how and when – businesses, consumers, and social institutions (other than governments) can and will adopt pro-sustainability orientations. Whether the future is an environmental dystopia or a sustainable development utopia depends vitally on how these five key dimensions will function. Empirical outcomes – global, regional, national, and local – might lie scattered everywhere in between those two extreme outcomes. A sustainable development utopia seems unlikely on present evidence.
This chapter examines the ethical sphere of organizational politics and office politics in relationship to employee conceptions of fairness and justice within organizations. The ethical sphere is defined as the interaction of organizational politics, employee perceptions of fairness and justice, and the ethical climate and culture of the organization. This interaction affects important dimensions of employee and organizational performance. The chapter provides a conceptual framework for studying political, ethical and justice relationships within an organization’s ethical sphere. The chapter explains key relevant theoretical and empirical literature on development, maintenance and performance effects of this ethical sphere.