This chapter describes the characteristics of residential segregation by race and social class in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, starting from data from the Brazilian census of 2010. After presenting the social structure of the metropolis, the work investigates segregation by social class and race, using dissimilarity indices and measures of spatial autocorrelation of EGP occupational categories. Next, the chapter constructs typologies of spaces according to social class, created from factorial and cluster analysis, showing a spatial structure characterized by the concentration of elites in more central spaces, while at the same time a growing social heterogeneity in peripheral and intermediate spaces. Many authors demeaned the importance of racial segregation in Brazil by making a comparison with cities in the United States, sustaining that there would be only residential segregation by class in Brazilian cities. However, the existing information challenges this interpretation, showing mild levels of residential segregation between blacks and whites in the lower classes that become increasingly sharp in middle and higher classes. Middle- and upper-class whites inhabit the most privileged areas of the metropolis, being very isolated and distant from all other groups, including middle- and upper-class blacks. Therefore, the São Paulo urban structure shows superposed and combined segregation patterns by race and class, resulting in cumulative urban inequalities.
João Lourenço Marques, Eduardo Anselmo Castro and Arnab Bhattacharjee
João Marques-da-Cruz and Eduardo Costa Pinto
This chapter demonstrates that beyond the intentional dichotomy suggested in its title, the transformation of contemporary landscape in a sustainable way implies the rejection of any form of dualism, be it ‘green’ and ‘grey’, Natura and Cultura, Man and Nature or wilderness and artefact. This ancient conceptual frontier, often reduced to a line creating in the landscape hermetic spaces, has definitely become obsolete and unsustainable in today’s landscape where humans have conquered universal ubiquity. In this new and complex reality, mitigation actions and compensation strategies, capable of counteracting environmental degradation, are increasingly less effective. Therefore, it is imperative to understand and manipulate landscape processes – cultural and natural – in order to achieve a ‘trajective continuity’, that is, to inscribe effectively our values in the places we inhabit and be transformed by it.