In the post-Cold War era, the pre-eminent threats to our security derive from human degradation of vital ecosystems as well as the possibility of war and terrorist attack. This substantial book examines this new ‘security-environment’ paradigm and the way in which the activities of societies are shifting the balance with nature. The distinguished authors investigate this redefinition of security with particular reference to environmental threats such as climate change and the availability of adequate supplies of food and water. They illustrate how unfettered economic growth, rising levels of personal consumption and unsustainable natural resource and energy procurement are taking a heavy toll on the global environment.
Edited by Edward A. Page and Michael R. Redclift
Edward A. Page
Global climate change raises profound questions for normative theorists. Many, if not all, of these questions arise from the challenge of specifying how benefits and burdens associated with managing climate change should be distributed within and between generations. In this chapter, three interconnected dimensions of this challenge are explored. First, the problem of determining the entitlements of states and their populations to exploit the capacity of the atmosphere to assimilate greenhouse gases (GHGs) (‘justice in mitigation’). Second, the problem of achieving a fair division of benefits and burdens associated with activities aimed at adjusting human behavior avoid the adverse effects of climate changes that cannot, or will not, be avoided through measures of mitigation (‘justice in adaptation’). Third, the problem of assisting vulnerable populations that face climate change related losses and damages that cannot be avoided or educed by measures of mitigation and adaptation (‘justice in loss and damage’). It is argued that achieving justice on each dimension will involve assigning a range of demanding duties to states and other users of the atmosphere.