Religious growth signifies multiple religions diffusing historically religious monopolies, and migration has resulted in growing populations of Muslims globally. Islam is the second-largest religion in the world. Muslim diasporic communities, as migrants, refugees, expatriates or business partners, are shaped in their existence and experiences by both their source country and their host country. Indeed, the usual negative images and stereotypes pertaining to Islam ignore Islam’s cultural and ideological heterogeneity. The presence of religiously observant employees can create conflict at work, particularly when these observances may mean praying five times a day or wearing a face covering. This chapter presents concepts pertaining to Muslim women and Islam with reference to work, followed by a theoretical framework where a model of careers and religion is developed. Next, international research in a broad swathe of countries is presented, and the final section consists of recommendations for organizations, policy-makers, government and education providers.
Edwina Pio, Robert Kilpatrick and Timothy Pratt
Looking to discover what triggers people to positive change and generous self-determination, this chapter examines the complex terms of ‘careers’, ‘religion’ and ‘calling’ in discussing how meaning is generated for the individual. Three case studies, that of a Protestant minister of religion in New Zealand, an ex-Buddhist aid and development worker monk from Thailand, and an agnostic peace-builder in Armenia, are utilized to explore how these three diverse individuals draw meaning from their careers. Using the theory of career ideation, building a vocation on experienced events and practiced values and beliefs, the chapter explores how religion gives structure to those on the career journey and how their spirituality seeks for a sense of purpose in their ‘calling’. Identifying how ‘calling’ can be very empowering for those in roles not necessarily considered religious, the chapter concludes by suggesting that we all need to gain a sense of transcendence from the careers we choose.