Efthymios Papastavridis and Aikaterini Grymaneli
This chapter explores how the European Union (EU) addresses transnational organised crime. With the abolition of barriers within the EU, not only people and goods but also criminality transcends borders. This has led Member States to reconsider their autonomy in this field, and agree on enhanced forms of cooperation, gradually transferring competences to the EU. Thus, among the main missions of the EU, post-Lisbon, is to offer its citizens an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice and this is achieved in two ways: through the harmonisation of substantive criminal law and enhanced procedural – police and judicial – cooperation, facilitated further by the creation of specialised agencies, such as Europol, Eurojust and Frontex. In addition, within the framework of its Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), the EU has taken concrete action in relation to terrorism, piracy and more recently the smuggling of migrants by sea.