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  • Author or Editor: Eleonora Di Maria x
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Eleonora Di Maria, Valentina De Marchi and Gary Gereffi

The chapter discusses the co-evolution of clusters and global value chains (GVCs) and proposes an integrated analysis of the organization of economic activities between the global and local levels. It explores the evolutionary characteristics of local clusters from theoretical perspectives rooted in management, economic geography and innovation studies. Connections between the cluster and GVC literatures focus on three key analytical dimensions: economic activities, key actors and relationships. The chapter discusses how GVC studies can incorporate the dynamics of clusters, and it offers new insights on how to interpret, measure and capture the changes occurring at the cluster level with an emphasis on co-evolutionary trajectories of change. Cluster research can provide inputs for the GVC framework, taking into account links between manufacturing and innovation in the emerging landscape.

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Valentina De Marchi, Eleonora Di Maria, Aarti Krishnan and Stefano Ponte

Responding to stakeholder pressure, firms are increasingly challenged to reduce their environmental impacts. This chapter reviews the potential upgrading trajectories for firms engaged in global value chains (GVCs) to effectively reduce the impacts on the environment of all activities linked to their products - not just those that are carried out in house - and the major drivers of these investments. We also examine the role of global lead firms in fostering the greening of GVCs and the different governing approaches that they have adopted. Furthermore, we look at different forms of supplier agency in these processes, both in the Global North and the Global South. Finally, we identify the key challenges related to the reduction of environmental impacts along GVCs and discuss limits and opportunities for the joint achievement of economic and environmental outcomes.