One of the most important economic events in recent decades has been the ongoing process of European integration. This book provides a basic yet rigorous understanding of the current issues and problems of economic integration and innovation in Europe, and argues that national or regional economic development depends mainly on technical change, social and human capital, and knowledge creation and diffusion. This is clearly evident in the role of the quadruple innovation helix of government, university, industry and civil society.
The key message of this book is that heterogeneity should be seen as an
intrinsic and indispensable element of knowledge systems. The authors
address the concept of heterogeneity in a multi-disciplinary fashion,
including perspectives from evolutionary economics and innovation system
studies, and relate this approach to existing theories in a broad range of