Starting from the intricate and multifaceted issues connected to the role that language may perform at both the European and national level, the chapter aims at studying the various barriers deriving from European Union (EU) linguistic diversity, as an interesting perspective from which to analyse the multilayered character of EU citizenship and to reflect on how to better exploit the EU linguistic richness while mitigating those barriers. To deal with these issues properly, the chapter focuses on the reasons justifying a linguistic requirement, in the light of the differences between factual and legal barriers. The need for a plurality of factors, sources of law, policies and actors to manage the challenges deriving from linguistic diversity are also considered. In particular, education and plurilingualism as tools to overcome – in a balanced and coherent way – the linguistic obstacles deriving from EU multilingualism are analysed.
Sybe de Vries and Elisabetta Pulice
Economic rights have constituted an indispensable aspect of EU citizenship. They have always been stressed by the European Union and more recently incorporated in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. Despite the fact that within the context of the European Union economic rights are ‘old’ rights and have a relatively strong position compared to other EU citizenship rights, there are legal and other, administrative and linguistic, obstacles that make the exercising of these rights sometimes difficult or even impossible. These obstacles develop against the background of a complicated system of multilevel governance between the EU and its Member States where different categories of citizens (gender, age, insiders and outsiders) and an increasing number of rights rival with each other. The question is: what is the impact of the multilevel context of the European Union on hindrances to the exercising of economic rights?