This research investigates the antecedents and motivations for multinational enterprises (MNEs) to enter into partnerships with non-governmental organizations (NGOs). We suggest a research agenda toward a theory of MNE-NGO stakeholder signaling as a form of corporate social responsibility (CSR). These partnerships signal to stakeholders the ethicality of company intentions to be environmentally and socially responsible. An examination of international business literature and MNE-NGO partnership cases is integrated to present a conceptual model to identify key antecedents and expected outcomes (i.e. reputational gains, enhanced credibility, market legitimacy, and message longevity).