Web3, underpinned by blockchain technology, is an evolution of digital infrastructure, whereby protocol facilitates the direct exchange of value between users, removing the need for trusted intermediaries. Existing blockchain experiments seek to create artist-centric business models, dismantling agency-centred business models that brokered and organised connections between artists and their fans or buyers. By enabling the automation of the value components, including payments, licensing and intellectual property management, contracting and governance, digital content storage and access, blockchain technology also enables new ‘value-based economics’ in which artists set the terms of their market participation. In this chapter, we outline emerging models and discuss some implications for creative industries research. Blockchain technology is currently being experimentally adopted into creative industries in order to improve transparency along supply chains, to lower costs of distribution by creating more direct platforms to connect artists and fans, and to improve handling of intellectual property and licensing arrangements, metadata, royalties and payments. We discuss case studies from music (Ujo Music and dotblockchain), visual arts (dada.nyc), and story-telling (Cellarius).
Jason Potts and Ellie Rennie
Ellie Rennie and Jason Potts
Australian artists overwhelmingly identify intrinsic factors as important for career advancement, such as persistence and passion. But the factors that artists consider to be holding them back are all extrinsic: more time to develop their work and adequate pay for their creative work. In addition, artists accrue costs in relation to access to specialised knowledge, up-skilling, administrative processes and enforcement. Artists’ income and time are dependent, not just on their own business acumen, but also on factors beyond their control, including broader industry transformations that affect audience and buyer behaviour. Streaming services and social media networks, in particular, are changing how artists derive income. Some can navigate this environment successfully, but others are left behind. This chapter discusses the impacts of the platform economy on Australian creative practitioners, as well as new technologies (including blockchain applications) designed to reduce reliance on intermediaries and the administrative costs of creative work.
Indigo Holcombe-James and Ellie Rennie
Between 2015-2017, we worked with Australia’s largest telecommunications provider to examine the issue of cyber safety as it related to Australia’s remote Aboriginal communities. In this chapter, we reflect on our experience with survey-based research in remote Indigenous communities and recount our own failed attempts to navigate data collection. We argue that although often required by commercial and policy domains, quantitative data can be problematic when applied to Indigenous policy issues. We therefore advocate for an intercultural research model that is truly intercultural, from the researched, to the researchers.