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Jane Addison, Enkh-Orchlon Lkhagvadorj, Lkhagvadorj Dorjburegdaa, Zhang Bao and Li Ping

As the primary grassland actor, the attitudes and perceptions of herders are crucial in determining grassland use and condition, and as such they are a powerful agent of change. This chapter examines what are meaningful livelihoods to herders, and the strategies they adopt to achieve these livelihoods. The link between the grassland environment and these livelihood strategies is also explored, as are the links between the institutional settings and macrodevelopments discussed in Chapter 2, and their livelihoods. The chapter concludes by identifying and discussing more livelihood focused environmental policies.

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Jeff Bennett, Li Ping, Zhang Bao, Enkh-Orchlon Lkhagvadorj and Duinkherjav Bukhbat

The focus of this chapter is on an empirical understanding of the value of the environmental benefits to flow from changes in grassland policies and incentives. There are three main parts to the empirical analysis that draw upon choice modelling analysis and contingent behaviour analysis, namely: the preferences of herders towards alternative policies; how herders would respond to these alternative policies in terms of livestock numbers and management; and the preferences and valuation of those who enjoy the environmental and social benefits resulting from changed policy settings. Where possible, comparisons are drawn between the empirical analysis in Mongolia and Inner Mongolia.

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Colin G. Brown, Enkh-Orchlon Lkhagvadorj, Zhang Jing, Lkhagvadorj Dorjburegdaa, Qiao Guanghua and Zhang Bao

Markets are crucial in determining the livelihoods of herders and other grassland actors, and as a platform for influencing incentives of grassland actors. The chapter examines market integration and price transmission in key ruminant livestock and livestock product markets, including sheep and goat meat, beef, cashmere and wool, in China and Mongolia to indicate the extent to which prices convey accurate incentives to herders about consumer preferences and the efficiency of markets in space, time and form dimensions. Ruminant livestock and livestock product industry policies in Mongolia and China are also discussed for the extent to which they distort or influence these markets, and the extent to which they align with societal preferences. Improvements in the ruminant livestock marketing systems that may increase value per unit grazing pressure, critical to grassland management, are also discussed.

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Jane Addison, Colin G. Brown, Enkh-Orchlon Lkhagvadorj, Zhang Jing, Scott Waldron, Zhang Bao and Duinkherjav Bukhbat

Formal and informal institutions impacting upon grassland use and management in China and Mongolia are set out and compared in the chapter. This includes a discussion of current policy instruments and evolution of these policies. Economic and other societal macrodevelopments that have influenced the behaviour of grassland actors are also outlined and compared.