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Erik Hans Klijn

Klijn argues, in Chapter 20, that interactive governance and the plea for participation and self-organization are strongly informed and motivated by ideas about democracy and participation. Analysing these processes tends to emphasize the way citizens participate in the process and the degree of influence they have. In his chapter Klijn argues that the managerial effort of interactive governance is likely to be as important (maybe even more) as the democratic character. He claims that the contrast often made between managerialism and democracy often vastly overemphasizes the conflict between the two and ignores the fact that good effective citizen participation with any impact needs strong management of network interactions in which the interactions take place. By using some recent research, Klijn indicates that there is a strong correlation between managerial activity, inclusion of stakeholders and performance. He then critically reflects on accountability issues that managers often face in interactive governance settings. Within this chapter, he goes deeper into these accountability problems and proposes possible solutions for these problems.

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Erik Hans Klijn, Joop Koppenjan and Rianne Warsen

Public-private partnerships are a vehicle used a lot by governments all around the world. When it was introduced the idea relied a lot on economic reasoning in which contracts, monitoring and performance criteria were important to achieve results. But from the beginning PPP’s were a hybrid idea because there were also assumptions about collaborations and synergy that fused the idea. In this chapter we explore the ideas behind PPP, the importance of collaboration to make PPP’s work and we show, with recent research results, that PPP’s actually need a mix of contracts and collaboration to work.