The application of competition law to sport in EU law has had an ambiguous relationship. Successfully using the shields of the specificity of sport and the autonomy of sport the rules and activities of sports governing bodies (SGB) have, until recently, appeared immune from scrutiny under the EU competition rules. An increase in challenges to the SGB at the national level has opened up the possibility of using EU competition law to challenge alleged restrictions on the autonomy of individual athletes to determine when and how they practice their professional skills. The European Commission has also taken an interest in this issue, opening an investigation into the activities of the International Skating Union. The chapter examines whether competition law is the best tool to address the regulation of SGB and sport in general.