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John Humphrey and Etsuyo Michida

Chapter 2 examines the drivers of the development of national, publicly-promoted standards for sustainable palm oil in Indonesia and Malaysia. Much of the extensive literature in this field has focused on the differences between the national standards - the Indonesia Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO) and Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil (MSPO) standards - and the largest private standards scheme, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO). The new national standards are frequently characterized as rivals that aim to supplant or weaken the RSPO. While the discourses of the two national governments at the time of the introduction of the standards did suggest rivalry, an analysis of the impact of the national standards on trade and their further subsequent development and modification highlights the ineffectiveness of their role as creators of new frameworks for trade, but shows how their importance in the domestic arena as drivers of rural transformation and improvements in the livelihoods of smallholder farmers.

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Edited by Michikazu Kojima and Etsuyo Michida

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Edited by Michikazu Kojima and Etsuyo Michida

Little is known about the volume of international recycling in Asia, the problems caused and the struggle to properly manage the trade. This pathbreaking book addresses this gap in the literature, and provides a comprehensive overview of the international trade flow of recyclable waste in Asia and related issues.
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Michikazu Kojima and Etsuyo Michida

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Etsuyo Michida, John Humphrey and David Vogel

Providing the overall context for the empirical chapters, Chapter 1 starts by discussing the questions of policy diffusion and policy alignment. It argues that while strong trading links drive policy diffusion and the alignment of standards, the outcome is not necessarily a strong alignment by follower countries with the standards operating in the export markets they target. Differences in priorities and capabilities may make it difficult to achieve full alignment. Pressure for standards alignment may exist even in the absence of trading relationships. Standards created through learning and emulation may face design and implementation constraints arising from the need to interact with standards in other jurisdictions. Therefore, even though policy diffusion and policy development in different countries may be motivated by similar perceptions of what a regulatory framework might require, variations in the regulations adopted can be observed across countries, which leads to multiple localized regulations.

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Edited by Etsuyo Michida, John Humphrey and David Vogel

This book focuses on the spread of public and private environmental and food safety regulations from Europe and North America to Asia and Africa. It explores the growth of policy diffusion and standard alignment on sustainability observed in non-Western follower countries in a globalizing world.