Biobanks and biobank networks are important for high-quality biomedical research, and provide a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel genes for diagnosis and treatment. Despite their importance, biobanks face numerous challenges in terms of quality and comparability of samples. The establishment of common standards, not only for storage and processing of biospecimens but also for discovery and validation, as well as harmonized data from those samples has become one of the major challenges that biobankers face and are working on. In this chapter, we argue that biobanks and biobank networks play a pivotal role in biomedical research. Biobanks are central to the enactment and implementation of collection practices in which good-quality samples and related information are collected from the population. This activity is central to the production of good research whose results are both replicable and valid.