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Fabiano Armellini, Catherine Beaudry and Maria Mahon

Early publications on open innovation identified two syndromes that would prevent companies from adequately adopting open innovation, the NIH (not-invented-here) syndrome, related to the unwillingness to use external knowledge, and the NSH (not-sold-here) syndrome, connected to a negative attitude towards the external commercialization of knowledge assets. Despite these early definitions, current research on the topic has been mostly focused on the absorptive capacity perspective, and less attention has been given to other relevant factors, culture being among them. This chapter addresses this issue, by proposing a regression model that correlates the presence of these syndromes with open innovation organization and the practice of inbound and outbound open innovation. Some of the hypotheses in this model are confirmed, mostly on the side of inbound open innovation, when tested with data from a questionnaire-based survey on the extent of the use of open innovation practices and open business modes in the Canadian aerospace industry.

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Fabiano Armellini, Cynthie Dega, Angie Garcia and Francisco Machado

This chapter provides an inventory and regrouping of the widely dispersed literature on technological incubators by considering the emergence of accelerators in the last decade, illustrated and supported by eight in-depth case studies of technology incubators and accelerators in Quebec (Canada). These cases enabled the development of an analytical framework adapted to the reality of the support organizations. The framework classifies incubators and accelerators into five profiles based on their overall strategies, goals and practices. This chapter provides an interesting overview of the impact of accelerators on the evolution of the incubation model through an analysis of the case studies. The proven efficacy of the former has contributed to the reinvention of the latter over a short time. Suggestions for future research in the field are outlined in the conclusion, based on a discussion of our findings and their limitations as presented in the chapter.