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Edited by Iredale R. Robyn and Guo Fei

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Fei Guo and Robyn R. Iredale

The recent unprecedented scale of Chinese migration has had far-reaching consequences. Within China, many villages have been drained of their young and most able workers, cities have been swamped by the ‘floating population’. Many rural migrants are unable to integrate into urban society. Internationally, Chinese have been increasingly more mobile. This Handbook provides a unique collection of new and original research on internal and international Chinese migration and its effects on the sense of belonging of migrants.

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Yeqing Huang and Fei Guo

The concept of social exclusion has been widely applied to explain the marginalization of rural–urban migrants in contemporary China, yet aspects of migrants’ own perceptions of their identity have received little attention. This chapter examines some of the underlying mechanisms of social exclusion in contemporary Chinese urban society by deconstructing perceived boundaries between rural–urban migrants and local urbanites. Qualitative analysis of data collected from a rural village in central China suggest that migrants’ identities are shaped and reshaped by their hukou and employment status, home ownership and social network. These factors are interwoven, leading to more than one identity in migrants’ narrative discourses. Most survey respondents, when asked to choose either a rural or an urban identity, were ambivalent, indicating apparently blurry identity boundaries. The findings highlight an intertwining effect of institutional and market forces in the process of rural–urban migrants’ identity formation and transformation in urban China.

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Fei Guo and Robyn R. Iredale

China’s internal migration is often compared to international migration in the sense that internal migrants are subject to substantial institutional constraints similar to crossing national boundaries. In addition, the identity adaptation and formation process of China’s rural–urban migrants shares many similarities with that of international migrants. By including studies of both internal and international migrations in one volume, it is hoped that more accessible references could be made available in one place to readers who are not only interested in China’s internal migration and international migration but also appreciate their comparative aspects. The conclusion summarizes the major trends and looks ahead to emerging issues. Internally, we can expect significant institutional changes that will affect the scale, directions and impacts of migration. These changes have the potential to improve the status, livelihood and wellbeing of migrants. Rural left-behind village communities stand to make considerable gains as more efforts are directed at loosening the institutional regulations that are holding back agricultural development. Tapping the potential development impacts of internal migrants returning to villages will lead to major improvements in rural areas. Internationally the relationship between China and its diasporas has already changed and intensified so that mainland-centred Chinese modernity exploits the diasporas for ‘capitalist knowledge and mutual self-interest in pursuit of global superpower status’ (Ang 2013, p. 29). If just a small proportion of overseas Chinese participate in this partnership, as appears to be the case, China will continue to grow and flourish economically. How this translates into political transformation is difficult to predict.

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Handbook of Chinese Migration

Identity and Wellbeing

Edited by Iredale R. Robyn and Guo Fei

The recent unprecedented scale of Chinese migration has had far-reaching consequences. Within China, many villages have been drained of their young and most able workers, cities have been swamped by the ‘floating population’, and many rural migrants have been unable to integrate into urban society. Internationally, the Chinese have become increasingly more mobile. This Handbook provides a unique collection of new and original research on internal and international Chinese migration and its effects on the sense of belonging of migrants.
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Jinghuan Shi, Yan Luo, Wen Wen and Fei Guo

This chapter, taking China as a case and following a four ‘C’s (context, concept, construction and conclusion) structure, depicts how the world’s largest higher education system is developing its quality governance mechanism. The mechanism includes a national overarching external evaluation structure and individual higher education institutions’ internal quality insurance practices, in response to the government’s ongoing reform scheme, changing needs of the market, and the massification process of higher education. The concepts of quality control (management) and quality governance are identified in the context of China’s culture tradition and social transition, which deeply influence the essence of higher education. Students’ participation and their learning experiences shown by large-scale surveys are presented as an example to describe the constructive practice that brings a shift from the traditional mode of quality management in which evaluation is more summative and single minded, to a new model of quality governance with assessments involving different stakeholders and aiming at process improvement. The chapter concludes that the quality governance of higher education in China is becoming a system of collaborative practices rather than the sole jurisdiction of the government.