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Laurie Mook and Femida Handy

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Laurie Mook and Femida Handy

One challenge faced by nonprofit organizations is capturing and reporting the creation of social value. Social accounting is one way of doing this. The framework of social accounting can be applied to any type of organization, but is particularly relevant for organizations that prioritize their social objectives. This chapter outlines the development of social accounting, which grew out of a critique of traditional accounting, and focuses on models for nonprofit organizations. It details one particular model, the Expanded Value Added Statement (EVAS) which reports on the economic and social value added (or destroyed) by the organization and how that is distributed to multiple stakeholders. A case study is used to construct an EVAS for Literacy Volunteers of Rochester, and show how non-monetary items, for instance volunteer contributions, can be included in an accounting framework. Limitations and challenges to adopting social accounting are also addressed.

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Shadrack Frimpong, Allison R. Russell and Femida Handy

Enterprises arising from the intersection of for-profit and nongovernmental organization (NGO) sectors offer innovative possibilities for re-imagining community development strategies. Through an in-depth examination of the work of Cocoa360, an NGO in rural Ghana, this chapter examines how a particular social innovation is used to promote community development from the ground up. We describe the work of Cocoa360 and argue that its model is indeed a social innovation and show how this model might be leveraged for development projects in other rural, agricultural communities around the world.