Across nearly all issue-areas women remain unequal to men. Despite substantial reform, there is a persistent citizenship gap between men and women. This gap appears to be narrowing more quickly in some countries than others. Along with advocacy-based mechanisms, cultivating women’s core rights, namely education and labor force participation, appear to foster resources critical for the advancement of other rights. Examining four issues-areas, the empirical analyses suggest that the citizenship gap is contracting in places that invest more in women’s rights advocacy and the education of girls, and to a lesser extent, where women are better integrated into the workforce.