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Lei Yang, Danae Manika and Frances Bowen

Previous research shows that organisations and employees usually perform green practices and activities superficially. Those behaviours are decoupled from the true benefits on the environment and very often are symbolic in nature. Symbolic pro-environmental activities are suggested as the representations of pro-environmental behaviours in symbolic form or the symbolic meanings attributed to eco-friendly objects and actions. This chapter aims to establish an integrated multi-level framework with three dimensions: appropriateness, competitiveness and status, to explain drivers of symbolic pro-environmental behaviours at organisational and employee levels. Specifically, the competitiveness dimension includes two aspects: gain resources and differentiation.