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Onno Kuik and Frans Oosterhuis

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Frans Oosterhuis and Patrick ten Brink

The most ancient term of constitution is the Greek word "________"_established on the basis of the constitutionalist experience of the ancient Greek peoples and representing a kind of constitutional concept of "Inter-sub-ject relationships"_Afterwards the terms for constitution evolved based on the clue of Ancient Greek thought. The Greek word "________" was Latinized by Cicero, who objectified the concept of constitution as rules of public affairs. Cicero also made two phrases of rei publicae status and rei publicae constitutio to express constitution, andset the word of status and the word of constitutio to substitute each other. Thomas Aquinas used ordinatio civi-tatis, ordo civitatis and regimen to explain Arislotle's concept of constitution, and reduced its meaning of "inter-subject relationships" to "class relationships"_After the nation-state period, the words for constitution in many national languages emerged_such as lois fondamentales, loi politique, constitution, Verfassung, etc. They reflect the political reality of territory-nation state, which is different from the political reality of city-state reflected by ancient constitutions. As there_many words for express constitution in history, it is ex parte to only focus on the word "constitution" in researching the history of terminology of constitution in western languages.

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Frans Oosterhuis and Katharina Umpfenbach

In this chapter we focus on subsidies that stimulate the production and consumption of energy. Such subsidies abound throughout the world, and most of them accrue to fossil fuels. Estimates of global energy subsidies vary widely (depending on definition and measurement), but they tend to amount to hundreds of billions of euros per year. Reforming these subsidies could contribute significantly to the reduction of CO2 emissions and other environmental problems. Despite several pledges on energy subsidy reform, progress in this area remains sluggish. This can be explained by the various interests and policy objectives that the support schemes (supposedly) serve. Reform strategies should assess the validity of these objectives and look for less distortionary and more cost-effective instruments to achieve them if they are considered to be (still) valid.

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Frans Oosterhuis and Marjan Peeters

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Edited by Frans H. Oosterhuis and Patrick ten Brink

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Edited by Frans H. Oosterhuis and Patrick ten Brink

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Edited by Frans H. Oosterhuis and Patrick ten Brink

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Edited by Frans H. Oosterhuis and Patrick ten Brink

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Edited by Frans H. Oosterhuis and Patrick ten Brink

In this chapter we focus on subsidies in three closely related areas: agriculture, food and water. Given the resource and pollution intensity of many activities in the food chain and the water cycle, the potential environmental impact of such subsidies is high. The actual impact, however, depends on the specific design and conditions of each support scheme. Direct agricultural subsidies, such as those under the EU Common Agricultural Policy, have undergone major changes that may make them less environmentally harmful, but there remains room for further 'greening'. There are many other, often less visible subsidies that could be reform candidates, especially those that do not (anymore) serve their original objective, or do so in an inefficient way.