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Markus Lederer, Linda Wallbott and Frauke Urban

This chapter presents a valuable framework for analysing green transformations in developing economies using two case studies from the so-called Global South: Costa Rica and Vietnam. Central lessons for other countries are that Costa Rica reversed its pathway of deforestation by reforesting the land and then addressing criticisms of its development by generating more genuinely green growth. Vietnam has previously focused on post-conflict restoration and economic development and has now turned towards green transformations, announcing an ambitious green growth strategy. The chapter shows that these countries – rather than having chosen easy pathways – made difficult choices that went against powerful vested interest groups within the country. This makes the decisions (and possibly the experiences) particularly relevant to other (smaller) countries considering taking a pathway involving green transformation.