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Andrea-Rosalinde Hofer and Gabi Kaffka

Higher education institutions are undergoing a change in terms of conceptual and organizational models. Entrepreneurship and innovation in higher education are no longer only associated with start-ups and technology transfer, but are increasingly understood as core elements of a procedural framework for how organizations and individuals behave. This chapter presents HEInnovate, a joint initiative by the European Commission and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, which provides a guiding framework for higher education institutions and their partners in national and sub-national policy making entities to support innovation and entrepreneurship. The chapter argues that the benefit of a common guiding framework is in overcoming the common tendency of responding through silo structures confined to faculties and departments or specialized professional services (such as technology transfer centres), instead of a wider strategic response undertaken by the higher education institution as a whole. The chapter introduces the reader to the free online self-assessment tool that facilitates the implementation of institution-wide strategic responses. It also presents emerging findings from country reviews of Ireland, the Netherlands, Hungary and Bulgaria, undertaken as part of HEInnovate, and argues that there are cross-country commonalities in how higher education institutions define and implement their entrepreneurial agenda.

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Gabi A. Kaffka and Norris Krueger

Cognitive differences at the individual level may determine how entrepreneurs execute entrepreneurial tasks (Forbes, 2005). Extant studies have focused mainly on the consequences of entrepreneurs possessing and leveraging particular cognitive abilities (Grégoire et al., 2011). Meanwhile, the mere performance of entrepreneurial action has an effect on an entrepreneur’s cognition, whether it be decision-making under uncertainty, pattern recognition or prototype building (Baron and Ensley, 2006; McMullen and Shepherd, 2006; McKelvie et al., 2011), drawing attention to the cause of entrepreneurial cognitive development. This cause versus consequence focus is described as an enduring conundrum within the entrepreneurial cognition literature (Grégoire et al., 2011). To address this conundrum researchers have called for more attention to be paid to dynamic processes related to entrepreneurial cognition (Mitchell et al., 2011), such as the role of third parties as these affect the development of entrepreneurial cognition (Ozgen and Baron, 2007). Recognizant of the role of the social context in entrepreneurial cognition, Mitchell et al. (2011) conceptualized entrepreneurial cognition as socially situated. Socially situated cognition (SSC) sees cognition as action-orientated, embodied, situated and distributed. Socially situated cognition emphasizes the distributed nature of cognitive development, namely, other actors as sources of information and knowledge who can be leveraged in respect of that (Haynie et al., 2010; Dew et al., 2015).