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Ana Flávia Barros-Platiau, Carina Costa de Oliveira, Gabriela G.B. Lima Moraes and Pierre Mazzega

Chapter 10 provides a balanced view on bioprospecting in Antarctica, an issue that gradually attracts the attention of governments, scientists and the commercial sector in recent years. Given the fact that the ATS has no regulation of bioprospecting yet, the chapter examines some key legal and political challenges for regulating Antarctic bioprospecting in the future. Questions are raised such as: whether the interest of humankind and the freedom of scientific research could be balanced with the appropriation of biological material from Antarctica; should the ATS be self-contained to regulate bioprospecting (e.g., through a mandate of CCAMLR), or should global regimes, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity be applicable in this case; and who should benefit from Antarctic bioprospecting and how to share potential benefits among developed and developing countries?