Melih Madanoglu and Gary J. Castrogiovanni
Studies of international market entry timing tend to focus on manufacturing firms and modes of entry that involve equity. In contrast, this chapter investigates how environmental uncertainty and munificence in both the home and host countries influence international entry timing of US service and retail franchising firms. The chapter finds that uncertainty and munificence in both the home and host countries have an effect on the timing of international entry. Thus, the chapter extends franchising and international management literatures by demonstrating that the economic environment has an influence on international market entry via non-equity entry modes.