This chapter uses the growth of Islamic finance to explore some of the diverse economies of contemporary global finance. The first part of the chapter considers the conceptual and practical need to re-read ‘global finance’ as proliferative and diverse. The chapter then explores the heterogeneous understandings and practices that characterize Islamic finance. Key features of Islamic finance – its concerns with riba, gharar and maisir – are briefly outlined. Finally, the chapter considers some of the complexity and diversity of how Islamic principles are being translated into contemporary financial practices, drawing on research from different areas of the world.