A multitude of socio-economic changes undergone in advanced industrialized countries has fundamentally altered the employment landscape and we are now witnessing far greater socio-demographic diversity in the workforce as well as greater diversity in modes and types of work. This chapter takes a critical look at the implications of this changing world of work for diversity and inclusion theory, context, practice and research. In the first section, the chapter addresses whether concepts of equality, diversity and inclusion are overlapping or competing. Next, how and why national context matters for diversity and inclusion theory, policy and practice is explored and illustrated with country examples. The third section examines the extent to which the theoretical shifts have led to changing practices at organizational level. The final section of the chapter looks at what and who diversity scholars study, highlighting a now broad and rich research agenda.