Over the past decade, the Australian Human Rights Commission has conducted two National Inquiries into children in immigration detention in Australia. This chapter focuses on the second National Inquiry, conducted in 2014. The Inquiry found that prolonged detention was having profoundly negative impacts on the mental and emotional health and development of children. Following the Inquiry, all children were gradually released from closed immigration detention facilities in Australia. The Commission’s recommendation for legislative amendments to prevent prolonged detention of children in the future was not adopted.