Traditionally, parents and families in Papua New Guinea (PNG) were not concerned about ideal family size, birth spacing or sex composition of children. Most people still believe in large families for continuation of lineages and clan memberships for gaining attachment to land. Having many children was also desirable for agriculture and tribal security. But these beliefs and practices are changing with urbanisation and modernisation. Many factors are responsible for these changes, although ‘social practices and behaviour protecting the health of mothers and children were prevalent in most traditional cultures of PNG’. Using data from the 1996 and 2006 PNG Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), and qualitative data collected in 2011, this chapter examines fertility preferences among women and men of reproductive ages and the factors influencing such preferences. The chapter provides recommendations for policies to reduce fertility through changes in couples’ preference for large family sizes.
Esther Lavu and Gouranga Lal Dasvarma
Gouranga Lal Dasvarma, Hang Lina, Sok Kosal and Nott Rama Rao
Fertility preferences in Cambodia are examined with data from Cambodia Demographic and Health Surveys 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014. The chapter contains brief reviews of trends in actual fertility during 1960s to 2014; measures of fertility preference used in Cambodia and extant studies on fertility preference in the country. It examines trends in wanted total fertility rate (WTFR) by age and education of women and men, province, and household wealth quintile. WTFR is lower than actual total fertility rate (TFR), but the gap between the two has narrowed down over time. However, large gaps between WTFR and TFR still exist in some of the provinces. WTFR is found to be a strong predictor of TFR when the provincial TFRs are regressed against provincial WTFRs. The chapter provides policy recommendations to further reduce desired fertility, increase the uptake of effective contraceptives and reduce unmet need for family planning.