This chapter provides an in-depth analysis of trends, patterns and differentials of fertility and fertility preferences among Filipino women. It also discusses the measurements and data sources available from 1968 to 2013. During this period, ideal family size fell from five to 2.8, while total fertility rate (TFR) dropped from 6.3 to three. Findings show certain groups have already closed the gap between their TFR and ideal family size (the highly educated, high socioeconomic status (SES) groups, those living in urban areas, National Capital Region (NCR) and Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) residents in particular), but only the richest quintile and the college educated have breached replacement fertility. Given this observation, further declines in fertility will largely depend on widespread reductions in the desired number of children. This chapter suggests the need for studies on factors that prevent desired fertility from falling, like couples’ disagreements on fertility preferences and a strong desire for balanced sex mix among children.