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Graeme A. Hodge

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Acknowedgements

Global Movements in Public Policy Ideas

Edited by Graeme A. Hodge

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Privatization and Market Development

Global Movements in Public Policy Ideas

Edited by Graeme A. Hodge

This accessible book aims to inform readers interested in assessing privatization and market development concepts on a global scale, and outlines a range of thinking on how these policy ideas have moved around the globe. Bringing together an international team of contributors, the book traces how privatization concepts have grown in application, and how they have spread to become a central policy idea for governments.
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Graeme A. Hodge

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The Challenge of Public–Private Partnerships

Learning from International Experience

Edited by Graeme A. Hodge and Carsten Greve

The aim of the book is to investigate how PPP reforms function in comparison to the more traditional methods of providing public sector services and infrastructure and who typically experiences the successes and failures of these reforms.
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Graeme A. Hodge and Carsten Greve

This chapter is situated at the nexus of two literatures: theoretical ideas from political science on the relationship between politics and markets, and the more recent public policy phenomenon of public–private partnerships (PPPs). It aims first to map some of the primary theoretical underpinnings describing the enduring relationship between governments and businesses. It then focuses on the adoption of PPPs as a popular infrastructure policy, and asks to what extent a particular political-market logic for the adoption of PPP policies appears to exist in leading jurisdictions such as the UK, Australia and Canada. It suggests that the empirical evidence on the undue influence of business over political decision making is not one sided and that the arena is still hotly contested. It also suggests that the policy logic of PPPs may be dependent on the relative maturity of governance systems, the relative maturity of PPP markets, and the political and public management environments in question. A taxonomy based on Kingdon’s conceptualization of the policy window is presented. The chapter also comments on the development of the PPP phenomenon over the last three decades and highlights particular characteristics influencing the policy path.

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Graeme A. Hodge and Carsten Greve

The performance of private finance-based infrastructure public–private partnerships remains hotly contested, despite their global popularity. This chapter explores the meaning of PPP and the notion of PPP success, and points to multiple interpretations of both. It proposes a new conceptual model of the PPP phenomenon, including five levels of meaning: project, delivery method, policy, governance tool, and cultural context. Numerous criteria exist on which the success of PPP might be judged. These are as oriented towards politics and governance as they are towards more traditional utilitarian policy goals concerned with project delivery, or value for money (VfM). Indeed, governments have dozens of different goals in mind. Given mixed international results to date for VfM, it is posited that to the extent that infrastructure PPPs continue to show popularity, governments may well be stressing PPP success more on the basis of political and governance strengths, than utilitarian characteristics.

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Graeme A. Hodge and Carsten Greve

This chapter examines the economic rationalism of public–private partnerships (PPPs) and the broad impact of PPPs on public service. PPPs are defined here as long_term infrastructure contracts, often involving private finance, where the public sector and the private sector share risks and results. The chapter traces the development of the policy idea of PPPs and the politics of PPPs. The main research questions are: How did PPPs become an influential idea in the narrative of economic rationalism? Why did PPPs emerge as a component in economic rationalism of the last twenty_five years? The chapter proceeds by first focusing on the concept of PPP. Then the chapter traces the policy and politics of PPPs through a twenty_five year period, including covering main theoretical interpretations of the politics of PPP, and contrasts the political idea with key developments in the public sector and in public_private relations. The chapter shows that the policy agenda and the politics surrounding PPPs expanded from a Western policy agenda in the 1990s to a global public policy agenda today.

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Graeme A. Hodge and Carsten Greve

In this chapter we first put forward some of the key economic arguments for PPPs. Rather than being a systematic treatment of the economics literature, we base much of it on the work of colleagues or finance academics we have met or have read. We highlight some of the scholarly economic arguments favouring PPPs and articulate crucial dimensions contained in these arguments. In particular, we highlight the opposing views of scholars where these exist, and point to any big gaps between what is argued at a theoretical level and what appears to be known at an empirical level. What we find is that economists generally tend to agree on the potential for PPPs to provide efficiencies compared to the public sector alternative. Less agreement, and indeed, strong disagreement exists, however, between economists on the conceptual manner through which rigorous evaluation of PPPs ought to be undertaken. These disagreements, along with a paucity of empirical data supporting PPP superiority, leave a surprisingly wide gap in our knowledge. So, in common with the privatizations undertaken by Thatcher during the 1980s_1990s, there remain huge differences between what is theorized on the one hand about aspects of PPP performance and what is proved empirically on the other.