You are looking at 1 - 10 of 13 items

  • Author or Editor: Greg Richards x
Clear All Modify Search
This content is available to you

Greg Richards

This content is available to you

Greg Richards

This introductory chapter outlines the development of cultural tourism as a social practice, charting the transition from an educational sojourn for the elite to a democratized means of mass edification and the more recent emergence of cultural tourism niches in the network society. The drivers of changes in the cultural tourism practice are reviewed, including the cultural, mobilities, performative, creative and curatorial turns. The shift in attention from social structures to actor-centred explanations is outlined, along with the growing complexity of the field stemming from the growth of the network society. An argument is developed for a practice approach which involves three main strategies for rethinking creative tourism: a view that encompasses actors and structures; an emphasis on interaction and relationality; and a focus on the context as well as the content of cultural tourism. The resulting practice model of cultural tourism draws on the work of Shove, Spaargaren, Collins and others to argue for a more integrated approach to the subject. This also provides the structure of the following chapters of the volume, dealing with the role of actors, contexts and consequences of cultural tourism. A more dynamic conceptualization is proposed in which actors can shape, as well as being shaped by, the structures of cultural tourism.

You do not have access to this content

Greg Richards

Cultural tourism practices centre on experiences that are created through the interaction of the antecedents of visitors and the opportunities provided by cultural tourism attractions and events. In a practice approach to cultural tourism, both the consumers and producers of cultural tourism experiences are considered as important actors who combine skills and resources to co-create cultural experiences. This chapter outlines the changing typologies, motivations and behaviours of the cultural tourist, and traces the ways in which the tourists interact with the producers and stagers of cultural experiences, including individual suppliers and organizations. The role of the producer is seen not just as a reaction to demand, but also the power to shape demand through the anticipation of future value. A review of the literature dissects the conceptualization of the cultural tourist from marketing approaches to the sociology of taste and the rise of performance and creative tourism. This analysis emphasizes the reflexive and relational nature of contemporary cultural tourism.

You do not have access to this content

Greg Richards

The evolution of cultural tourism from an elite to a mass phenomenon can largely be explained by the shift in culture from the ‘Culture 1.0’ of patronage to the ‘Culture 2.0’, stemming from the expansion of the cultural industries and ‘Culture 3.0’, linked to the co-creation of postmodern culture. The decline of high culture as the arbiter of meaning under Culture 1.0 necessitated a progressive shift in the location and quantity of cultural tourism experiences. The cultural tourist left the museum to enjoy heritage centres, cultural festivals and events, street art and everyday life. The growth of the experience economy and the cultural and creative industries created a range of new cultural tourism experiences, and the global branding and McGuggenheimization of culture. The declining power of the narratives of high culture, the nation state and the cultural producer created room for the cultural tourist to co-create their own tourism experiences. The role of the new cultural intermediaries also shifted from staging experiences and guiding the tourist to facilitating and enabling experience co-creation. The curator has moved out of the museum, as everyday life becomes a form of ‘art’ that needs curation. The tactical tourist and the creative tourist became the trend-setting vanguard of cultural tourism development, colonizing the new spaces of urban and rural cultural tourism. Small cities emerged to challenge the Culture 2.0 hegemony of the metropolitan centres, with new museums and events aimed at a global audience. The fragmented cultural landscape began to be reinterpreted through events, which became the connecting hubs and nodes for the global cultural audience. These new articulations challenged long-established hierarchies of culture and geography and led to a range of novel outcomes of the cultural tourism practice.

You do not have access to this content

Greg Richards

Cultural tourism has long been driven by a range of consequences, both positive and negative. In the past, these included the educational role of cultural tourism for the elite and the verification of cultural authenticity for the icons of high culture. The rise of the cultural industries placed growing emphasis on the economic impacts of cultural tourism, seen as the ‘new oil’ or ‘new General Motors’ of the post-industrial economy. But the drive for economic growth also revealed other, less desirable outcomes of the growth of cultural tourism, including a range of social and cultural effects for host communities. Arguments about the declining authenticity of (cultural) tourism experiences abounded, stimulating discussion about the grounds for determining the authenticity of objects and experiences. Cultural tourism has been at the forefront of such discussions, although there are also grounds for seeing the authenticity debate as an academic red herring. We examine the authenticity debate from a practice perspective, highlighting the example of flamenco as an authenticity-generating ecosystem. We consider the different consequences and effects arising from cultural tourism in terms of a model of ritual social practices. In this model, cultural tourism rituals focussed on cultural objects and processes generate outcomes for the actors and the context, including the internal and external goods required to support the practice itself. The search for emotional energy through ritual practices is seen as a driver for the search for new cultural experiences and the development of new means of cultural tourism consumption.

You do not have access to this content

Greg Richards

A practice approach allows us to focus on the factors that drive participation, maintenance and value creation. The changes in the cultural tourism practice outlined in the previous chapters throw light on the decline of the more traditional, Culture 1.0 and 2.0 approaches and their replacement by service-driven or consumer-driven logic or co-creation. The crumbling meaning-making systems of traditional cultural tourism have seen the guidebook replaced by the information cascade of big data as the main support for cultural tourism practices. New intermediaries and platforms make use of data analytics to sift and curate cultural tourism experiences, and cultural spaces increasingly resort to the use of new technologies to engage new audiences. The need to give meaning to cultural spaces for new, networked publics, has also placed a new emphasis on ‘placemaking’ instead of cultural destination development. Cultural institutions and cities increasingly work together to innovate cultural experiences and to create meaning for residents as well as tourists. Placemaking has overtaken the previous emphasis on city marketing and branding, to emphasize the need for improving the reality of places, not just their image. As cultural and creative tourists increasingly seek to ‘live like locals’, strategies aimed purely at the ‘cultural tourist’ are also likely to become less effective. The range of outcomes desired from the cultural tourism practice will therefore also increase, moving from economic and cultural impacts, to social, environmental and identity effects. We also consider the dynamics of cultural tourism practices and how these are created, maintained and interrupted or terminated. Particular attention is paid to the role of mobile actors in propagating new cultural tourism formats around the globe, and the Covid-19 pandemic as an extreme interruption of the cultural tourism practice.

You do not have access to this content

Greg Richards

The concluding chapter reviews emerging issues in cultural tourism research and the implications of a practice approach for a future research agenda. We consider the implications of changes in the material, meanings and competences in cultural tourism for the future development of the field. Issues in terms of materials include the application of new technologies, and in terms of meanings, we argue that concepts of authenticity will continue to change, also in response to the use of a wider range of materials. The application of new technologies and the expansion of the cultural tourism field will also demand new competencies from the cultural tourist in future. The future dynamics of cultural tourism will also require new methodological and analytical tools, supported by collaborative modes of research. The future analysis of cultural tourism as a field of social practices should integrate an understanding of the internal dynamics of the field (relationships between actors and structures in the local space of places) with analysis of the global linkages (with the space of flows) required to capture external resources to sustain the practice.

You do not have access to this content

Greg Richards

This insightful book reappraises how traditional high culture attractions have been supplemented by popular culture events, contemporary creativity and everyday life through inventive styles of tourism. Greg Richards draws on over three decades of research to provide a new approach to the topic, combining practice and interaction ritual theories and developing a model of cultural tourism as a social practice.
You do not have access to this content

Greg Richards

This chapter reviews the field of event experience research, identifying major trends and setting out research directions for the future. Experiences are often viewed as the core of events and are therefore a key concern for event management and design. Much research has therefore focused on the way in which experiences are produced and consumed within events, which are often viewed as a special setting outside of everyday life. Recent research has extended to the complete visitor journey, considering what happens before and after the event as well. Future directions for event experience research suggested here include the development of improved measurement tools, examining the linkages between different elements of the event experience, the co-creation of value through event experiences, the development of ‘event careers’ among visitors and the application of new technologies to event experience research.

You do not have access to this content

Greg Richards