An increasing number of employees provide informal care for others. In this chapter, the authors review the theoretical and empirical literature on workplace social support for employed caregivers, including employees with childcare and/or eldercare responsibilities. They adopt a stressor–strain–outcome framework to describe how caregiving demands may influence important work outcomes via work–family conflict, and integrate it with theorizing on workplace social support. The authors first summarize evidence regarding beneficial main and buffering effects of actual and perceived organizational support among employed caregivers. Subsequently, they describe findings on main and buffering effects of supervisor and co-worker support. The chapter concludes by outlining directions for future research and practical implications.
Clarissa Bohlmann and Hannes Zacher
Hannes Zacher and Cort W. Rudolph
We describe how a dynamic way of thinking can challenge existing knowledge and traditional ways of conducting empirical research in the field of organizational behavior. By a “dynamic way of thinking,” we mean a focus on within-unit development over time, including change and stability in individual, team, or organizational characteristics. A dynamic approach also examines between-unit differences in within-unit development, as well as antecedents and consequences of development. Over the past two decades, there has been a rapid growth in theory development and empirical studies adopting a dynamic way of thinking. To illustrate the importance of dynamic approaches for advancing the field of organizational behavior, we selectively review research on personality and emotions, work-related attitudes and well-being, work motivation and behavior, career development, job design, leadership and entrepreneurship, teams and diversity, and human resource management. We conclude the chapter by outlining implications for future theory development and empirical research.
Hannes Zacher and Megan J. Bissing-Olson
In this chapter, we first explain what is meant by between-person variability (or interindividual differences) and within-person variability (or intraindividual variability and change) in employee pro-environmental behaviour. Second, we describe two quantitative daily diary studies that examined both between-person and within-person variability in employee pro-environmental behaviour. Third, we present a conceptual framework for investigating person- and context-related predictors of stable between-person differences and dynamic within-person variability in employee pro-environmental behaviour. Fourth, we discuss different research designs and analytical strategies to investigate between- and within-person variability in employee pro-environmental behaviour. We conclude by discussing implications for organisational practice.
Hannes Zacher, Cort W. Rudolph and Claudia Reinicke
In this chapter, we review, integrate, and discuss research on objective and perceived organizational support for employees with caregiving responsibilities, and associated experiences of work–family conflict, strain, and well-being among these employees. We focus on employees with childcare responsibilities, eldercare responsibilities, or both (the sandwich generation). Organizational support refers to instrumental, socioemotional, or informational help provided by an organization, which often surfaces in the form of specific policies, practices, and procedures. Organizational support may: directly affect employee experiences of work–family conflict, strain, and well-being; buffer the effects of caregiving demands on these experiences; or interact with caregiving demands, individual differences, and/or contextual characteristics in predicting experiences. We conclude by outlining directions for future research and implications for organizational practice. Key words: caregiving, childcare, eldercare, organizational support.
Hannes Zacher, Mona Mensmann and Michael M. Gielnik
This chapter adopts a psychological perspective on the association between ageing and entrepreneurship. Specifically, we focus on individual and contextual characteristics that may change over the lifespan, and therefore explain and modify relations between age and entrepreneurship. First, we define entrepreneurship as a process that involves the identification, evaluation and exploitation of business opportunities. Second, we outline key tenets of a lifespan psychological approach to ageing and development. Third, we review theoretical frameworks and empirical evidence on the association between ageing and entrepreneurship. We conclude the chapter by outlining directions for future research, including conceptual and methodological considerations.
Claire E. Greaves, Stacey L. Parker, Hannes Zacher and Nerina L. Jimmieson
Owing to an aging population, as well as delays to childbirth, a growing number of employees are providing informal care to both children and frail family members. There are a number of ways employees leverage their resources to manage their competing work and family caregiving responsibilities, and to protect their well-being. To better understand how resources are utilized in this context, the authors present a taxonomy of resource effects that categorizes different ways resources can combine to protect employee well-being. Moreover, in this chapter they describe potential explanatory mechanisms of different resource effects and offer boundary conditions for resource interactions. This chapter consolidates and reviews empirical studies that have examined different resource combinations in the work and caregiving literature, and identifies a number of resource effects, including resource buffering, resource gain and loss, resource spirals, and two types of resource interactions—boosting and compensation. Limitations and directions for future research are identified, to develop the field further. Key words: caregiving, eldercare, childcare, resources, work–family conflict, work–family enrichment, well-being.