This chapter explores the ways in which social networking media provide platforms for transnational encounters that represent diversity in the local space, Copenhagen in Denmark. By analysing the socialization and cultural self-representation of expats, mobile foreign citizens (both EU and non-EU), the authors argue that social networking media shift the frontiers of identities between expats and locals, and catalyse a new spirit of hybridity and creative ‘playing with diversity’ that becomes characteristic for the local public sphere. The authors suggest a multidimensional analysis of social networking media, as a bridging element between the governmental support, civil society, host society and expats, by using mixed methods – social media content analysis, a social media online survey, netnography, ethnography and qualitative interviews. The particular use of social media by mobile citizens points towards the construction of a cultural public sphere, which is not simply virtual: expats and expat support groups use social media to build transnational networks, and interact face to face with the locals (Danes), people from their country of origin, and other like-minded mobile foreigners, and this creates a sense of belonging to the particular city-place where they actually live. Mobility and citizenship rights as facilitated by the Europe of free movement in this sense contribute to the consolidation of a European public sphere, which is not based on sharp distinctions but where transnational encounters are rather kept in flow with an elite group of EU mobiles and other less privileged (EU and non-EU) migrants in constant exchange with each other.
Deniz Neriman Duru and Hans-Jörg Trenz
Dieter Schmidtchen, Alexander Neunzig and Hans-Jörg Schmidt-Trenz
Manlio Cinalli, Olga Eisele, Verena K. Brändle and Hans-Jörg Trenz
Chapter 6 engages with public contention about solidarity. In particular it assesses the extent to which acts of solidarity towards refugees were granted public awareness during the refugee crisis in Europe, and what claims on behalf of or against refugees were made, and by whom. It also examines the discursive construction of European solidarity in terms of its positions and justifications underlying public debate, and how such differences are used in contestations between various allegiances. The chapter also looks more specifically into the fault lines that have opened up across Europe, assessing the extent to which national debates in eight countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Switzerland and the UK) have followed similar patterns of division among governments, political parties and civil society actors. Propositions of, and opposition to, different solidarity projects are taken as ‘claims’ that compete for salience in the public domain as represented by the media.
Hans-Jörg Trenz, Verena K. Brändle, Manlio Cinalli and Olga Eisele
Chapter 7 focuses on social media dynamics in the mobilisation of support for, or opposition to, refugees. An analysis of online commenting by news readers sheds light on the more hidden side of the public sphere, where people may seize the chance to express emotions and translate them into political action. This is particularly interesting because the case of solidarity with refugees has divided public opinion all over Europe with advocates of human rights and open borders opposing supporters of exclusive, nationalist welfare. The chapter analyses how bottom-up contestation of refugee solidarity was triggered by particular events and their interpretation in the media, such as the humanitarian disasters at Europe’s external borders that unfolded during the month of September 2015. In particular, a comparative analysis of online commenting on Facebook news sites is undertaken for eight countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Switzerland and the UK) in order to assess the political expressions of selected citizen-users who decide to position themselves in debates about refugees. Social media offers an interesting opportunity for citizens to ‘take voice’ or ‘take sides’, which is the precondition for any form of political mobilisation. At the reception site, opinions in the form of general attitudes expressed towards refugees as shaped by media discourse can be measured, as can responsiveness, either in the form of consenting or opposing claims raised in the media. Voices in the form of political statements made by those citizen-users who intervened in the debate as ‘secondary definers’ of the events are also assessed.