This chapter investigates the relationship between small/marginal farmers and various informal lenders in the Indian Punjab. The authors examine pertinent aspects of lending practices relating to informal providers’ decision-making processes when lending to farmers. The findings indicate that financial lending structures, as well as borrowing decisions, depend largely upon a number of difficult-to-quantify factors such as culture, caste, family size, education, reputation and relational lending practices which are prominent amongst both formal and informal lenders. Informal lenders represent a dedicated and bespoke source of finance, a well-established ‘institution’ for several generations and serve a large population of small/marginal farmers. Hence in order to minimize adverse outcomes and improve access to finance, there is a need to regulate the informal lending sector of India.
Navjot Sandhu, Javed G. Hussain and Harry Matlay
Alain Fayolle and Harry Matlay
Harry Matlay and Alain Fayolle
Edited by Alain Fayolle and Harry Matlay
This timely Handbook provides an empirically rigorous overview of the latest research advances on social entrepreneurship, entrepreneurs and enterprises. It incorporates seventeen original chapters on definitions, concepts, contexts and strategy, including a critical overview and an agenda for future research in social entrepreneurship.