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Helen Lawton Smith

The entrepreneurship and economic development agenda is one that is both academic and political. Places grow because they generate new firms. Underpinning the idea of entrepreneurship-led growth is the supposition that entrepreneurship can be stimulated at the regional level by policy intervention. A dilemma for policy makers, however, is the persistence of entrepreneurial regions independently of politics. To address this problem, the European Union has introduced the European Entrepreneurial Region (EER) project. The EER ‘is a project that identifies and rewards EU regions which show an outstanding and innovative entrepreneurial policy strategy, irrespective of their size, wealth and competences. The regions with the most credible, forward-thinking and promising vision plan are granted the label “European Entrepreneurial Region” (EER) for a specific year.’ However, in the face of more firms, more jobs, wealth creation and lowering unemployment, there is still a lack of clear evidence of the impact of enterprise policies. The chapter considers how regions become entrepreneurial and which organizations are dominant in shaping visions and coordinating entrepreneurial activity. The high-tech entrepreneurial regions of Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire in the UK are used to illustrate, even in apparently similar regions, the distinctive differences in how the entrepreneurial region concept is developed and enacted at the local level.

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Helen Lawton Smith

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Helen Lawton Smith

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Helen Lawton Smith and Saverio Romeo

The chapter examines the relationship between formal networks, such as business and occupationally based professional networks, and place in determining network patterns and types in regional economic development. It distinguishes between ‘network-rich’ and ‘network-poor’ regions. It considers why and how formal networks operate as a service and a resource for participants and as components of regional business infrastructures. Formal networks of the Oxfordshire to Cambridge Arc in the UK are used to illustrate these points.

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Richard Eccleston, Richard Krever and Helen Smith

This chapter establishes the conceptual and theoretical foundations for the ensuing volume. It summarizes the debates concerning the key features of federal governance before providing an overview of the existing explanations of change in federal systems, with a particular emphasis on the application of new institutionalism to explanations of ‘federal dynamics’. The second section of the chapter focuses on the literature on the impact of financial and economic crises of federal governance before providing an empirical account of the economic impact of the 2008–9 financial crisis on the 12 cases included within the volume. The chapter concludes by outlining how an actor-centred institutionalism is applied to the case studies that follow.

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Edited by Helen Lawton Smith, Colette Henry, Henry Etzkowitz and Alexandra Poulovassilis

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Henry Etzkowitz, Helen Lawton Smith, Colette Henry and Alexandra Poulovassilis

This chapter takes a relatively optimistic ‘glass half full’ approach to scientific institutions fraught with gender issues. Significant inclusion is celebrated. Remaining barriers are attacked. A European Union project to improve the condition of women in academic science and concomitant research is presented. Vignettes of hope are offered that maybe provide a way towards gender equality.