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Edited by Israel Solorio and Helge Jörgens

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Edited by Israel Solorio and Helge Jörgens

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Helge Jörgens and Israel Solorio

Chapter 1 presents the analytical framework used throughout the book to study how renewable energy policies in the EU member states emerged and have changed throughout the past three decades. In order to study renewable energy policymaking in the European Union (EU) and its member states and to untangle the complex policy processes that surround it, the authors draw on the Europeanization framework as their principal analytical tool. Adopting a Europeanization perspective allows emphasis to be put not only on the domestic drivers of national policy change, but also on the (sometimes neglected) role of the EU in renewable energy sources promotion. It also directs the analytical focus to the interactive nature of EU policymaking, characterized by an interdependent mix of uploading, downloading and cross-loading of policies and programmes between the European and the national levels and across EU member states. In order to adequately account for the multiplicity of factors that drive policy change in the European multi-level polity, the authors distinguish between three types of Europeanization – bottom-up, top-down, and horizontal – all of which prove to be relevant in some countries or at some point in time. By explicitly adding a horizontal dimension, the analytical framework goes beyond traditional concepts of Europeanization as a two-way process where member state governments either shape European policy outcomes (bottom-up Europeanization) or adapt to them (top-down Europeanization). Keywords: bottom-up Europeanization, Europeanization, horizontal Europeanization, policy diffusion, renewable energy policy, top-down Europeanization

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A Guide to EU Renewable Energy Policy

Comparing Europeanization and Domestic Policy Change in EU Member States

Edited by Israel Solorio and Helge Jörgens

This book is a guide for understanding the EU renewable energy policy as one of the most ambitious attempts world-wide to facilitate a transition towards more sustainable energy systems. It contains key case studies for understanding how member states have shaped the EU renewable energy policy, how the EU has affected the policies of its member states and how renewable energy policies have diffused horizontally. An analysis of the external dimension of the EU renewable energy policy is also included.
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Per-Olof Busch and Helge Jörgens

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Per-Olof Busch and Helge Jörgens

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Helge Jörgens, Eva Öller and Israel Solorio

In the second half of the 2010s, the transformation of the energy systems of the European Union (EU) and its member states towards a greater incorporation of renewable energy sources (RES) has come to a crossroads. While the 1990s and most of the 2000s witnessed a rapid increase in policies and programmes aimed to promote the production and consumption of energy from RES, and an equally rapid growth of the share of RES in national and European energy mixes, since the late 2000s the speed of transformation has slowed down considerably and instances of policy dismantling are becoming more frequent. Drawing on the rich empirical and analytical background of the book’s country studies, this concluding chapter adopts a comparative perspective in order to identify more general patterns of Europeanization and policy change in the renewable energy policy domain over the past decades. Focusing on the development and implementation of major renewable energy directives in the electricity and biofuels domains, the chapter sheds light on the complex patterns of renewable energy governance in the European Union, paying particular attention to the processes of bottom-up, top-down and horizontal Europeanization, as well the domestic drivers of (and obstacles to) transformative policy change. The empirically rich comparative analysis furthers our understanding of the structural and practical barriers that a RES-based energy transition in Europe and abroad is currently facing and sheds light on strategies and best practices for future renewable energy policy in the European multilevel polity. Keywords: biofuels policy, bottom-up Europeanization, horizontal Europeanization, renewable electricity policy, renewable energy policy, top-down Europeanization