Foreign investors entering emerging markets have to take strategic decisions on where and how to set up operations. These decisions have to accommodate institutional conditions that vary not only between countries, but also within the host economy. We offer a theoretical framework to analyse how institutions in an emerging economy influence entry strategy decisions. On this basis, we analyse the determinants of two key aspects of entry strategy: location and entry mode in Vietnam. We find that sub-national institutional variables have a significant influence on both dimensions. The availability of scarce resources affects the location of FDI and the likelihood of Greenfield entry. Institutional pressures arising from incumbent state-owned firms and the domestic market orientation of the investor lead to a preference for joint venture entry.