Entrepreneurial intention models are well established in the entrepreneurship literature. However, the rate of transformation from intention into action (start-up behaviour) is relatively low, and little is yet known about the factors that contribute to this transformation. In this chapter, we focus on the role of culture in the entrepreneurial process. We identify two components of culture (values and practices) and argue that their mode of influence is different. Although cultural values shape personal motivations, attitudes and intentions, cultural practices affect the actual start-up behaviour. The interaction with the economic conditions is also considered. An integrative model for the culture’s mode of influence on the entrepreneurial process is proposed.
Francisco Liñán and Inmaculada Jaén
Mohd Rashan Shah Robuan, Inmaculada Jaén and Francisco Liñán
The main objective of this study is to analyse the specificities and difficulties involved in developing entrepreneurship in Malaysia. This is done through a case study of a newly implemented entrepreneurship education programme (EEP) at one public university, offered to multidiscipline and multi-ethnic students in that country. This case study describes the EEP and the characteristics of the participating students. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is used as an evaluation framework. Data were gathered through quantitative surveys from the basic (N = 308), intermediate (N = 17) and advanced (N = 19) courses. The results show the initial interest in entrepreneurship, with the Bumiputera ethnic group scoring the lowest. As expected, participants in the elective courses exhibit higher entrepreneurial intention when compared to those taking the compulsory course. The study also highlights the very high barriers to start-up perceived by these students. This chapter is novel in that it assesses the possibility of developing graduate entrepreneurs as a means to comply with the constitutional mandate in Malaysia to improve the situation of Bumiputera.