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Elisabeth Buergi Bonanomi and Irene Musselli

Global trade has benefits but also poses risks. This is particularly true for trade in agriculture. Without context-specific trade rules, North–South trade can worsen people’s livelihoods. Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) can ensure that trade rules are shaped to support enabling environments for human rights realization. Important benchmarks include access to adequate food and maintenance of equitable working conditions; food-system diversity is also particularly relevant for shaping human-rights-conducive trade options. This chapter discusses how stakeholders can draw inspiration from existing sustainable agricultural trade theory and from empirical experience, as illustrated by the example of palm oil and the planned EFTA–Malaysia Free Trade Agreement. The chapter also elaborates on the growing momentum towards acknowledging trade measures relating to processes and production methods (PPMs). Finally, it considers whether a more pragmatic, deliberation-based approach to trade negotiations and the strengthening of the rule of law in external affairs could yield even better results.