Isabel Metz, Eddy S. Ng, Nelarine Cornelius, Jenny M. Hoobler and Stella Nkomo
This chapter assesses the adoption and implementation of multiculturalism across Australia, Canada, the UK, the US and South Africa (the “Anglo bloc”), all of which receive a large number of immigrants. Australia and Canada espouse an official multiculturalism policy, and encourage their citizens and immigrants to adopt each other’s culture. The US does not have an official multiculturalism policy and follows an assimilation approach (“melting pot”) to immigration acculturation, but implements affirmative action to support racial minorities in education and employment. The UK and South Africa also do not have an official multiculturalism policy. They fall somewhere between Australia/Canada and the US on the immigrant acculturation continuum. The UK is heavily influenced by EU directives, and has strong anti-discrimination laws to compensate for a lack of multiculturalism policy. South Africa is a special case, where blacks are indigenous rather than immigrants. It has strong affirmative action policies, but they do not apply to those who attain citizenship after 1984. The emphasis is on the economic empowerment of previously disadvantaged groups. The chapter also updates the 2010 Multiculturalism Policy Index (MPI) with data from South Africa.